The Arctic Working Group, based at Carleton and McMaster universities, is working to connect current knowledge of key issues of concern to Arctic Ocean coastal communities to broad questions of science and policy integration. The group holds as a key goal the empowerment of community voices in the Arctic region and is currently establishing collaborative activities that can support this work.
At Carleton University, we are completing the cross-atlas layer sharing, and making good progress on the SIKU Atlas layers, which will present data in new formats and schemas. The Genome Canada Project (Towards a Sustainable Fishery in the Arctic) atlas is using the Nunavut Coastal Research Inventory (NCRI) data model. The Nunavut Place Names Atlas has now been renamed the Inuit Places Atlas and the scope has increased to include other regions. The atlas structure has been set up and our partners at the Kitikmeot Heritage Society (KHS) will be reaching out to other Inuit Peoples in the Circumpolar Arctic. The Clyde River Atlas is now up and running. Work is underway on several models, including NCRI integration and community plans to enhance the atlas with video and audio interviews from Elders.
At McMaster University, we participated in local-level social-ecological modelling, led by the Atlantic Working Group, and are moving to the Arctic implementation of the SES model-development strategy. Phase 1 of this initiative has been completed, and we are now transferring our knowledge of fine-scale local level relationships to articulation of an Arctic site. We are also collecting metadata on trans-regional ocean globalization and implications for social-ecological systems.
Research topics at Carleton during 2015/2016 were increasing partnerships for atlas expansion and development of a secondary data strategy for a metadata-base design. The Working Group is also involved in developing best practices for organizing ethics for research practices. The objectives are to have one or more studies exploring partnership building in the context of building an Arctic Ocean Atlas by expanding the existing SIKU Atlas and other projects of the Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre (GCRC), and to develop a metadata-base design to be prepared as a model for OCP as a whole.
At McMaster, with the engagement of a doctoral student in health policy, the Working Group has advanced discussion of community-level case studies, and participated in cross-working group activities. Outputs include presentations, journal articles, and development of guidelines for conducting ethical research as well as a metadata-base design framework. The Working Group is facilitating access to resources used in current and previous community engaged work for the benefit of the OceanCanada partnership.
Nancy Doubleday (Co-Lead), McMaster University
D. R. Fraser Taylor (Co-Lead), Carleton University
Amos Hayes, Carleton University
Sarah Newell, McMaster University
Kathryn Pringle, McMaster University
Dr. Nancy Doubleday: Arctic Working Group Co-Lead
(book chapter in On Active Grounds) This book considers the themes of agency and time through the burgeoning, interdisciplinary field of the environmental humanities. Fourteen essays and a photo album cover topics such as environmental practices and history, temporal literacy, graphic novels, ecocinema, ecomusicology, animal studies, Indigeneity, wolf reintroduction, environmental history, green conservatism, and social-ecological systems change. The book also speaks to the growing concern regarding environmental issues in the aftermath of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) and the election of Donald Trump in the United States. This collection is organized as a written and visual appeal to issues such as time (how much is left?) and agency (who is active? what can be done? what does and does not work?). It describes problems and suggests solutions. On Active Grounds is unique in its explicit and twinned emphasis on time and agency in the context of the Environmental Humanities and a requisite interdisciplinarity. (Full publication)
“Coastal grab” refers to the contested appropriation of coastal (shore and inshore) space and resources by outside interests. This paper explores the phenomenon of coastal grabbing and the effects of such appropriation on community-based conservation of local resources and environment. The approach combines social-ecological systems analysis with socio-legal property rights studies. Evidence of coastal grab is provided from four country settings (Canada, Brazil, India and South Africa), distinguishing the identity of the ‘grabbers’ (industry, government) and ‘victims’, the scale and intensity of the process, and the resultant ‘booty’. The paper also considers the responses of the communities. While emphasizing the scale of coastal grab and its deleterious consequences for local communities and their conservation efforts, the paper also recognizes the strength of community responses, and the alliances/partnerships with academia and civil society, which assist in countering some of the negative effects. (Full publication)
Human knowledge of the polar region is a unique blend of Western scientific knowledge and local and indigenous knowledge. It is increasingly recognized that to exclude Traditional Knowledge from repositories of polar data would both limit the value of such repositories and perpetuate colonial legacies of exclusion and exploitation. However, the inclusion of Traditional Knowledge within repositories that are conceived and designed for Western scientific knowledge raises its own unique challenges. There is increasing acceptance of the need to make these two knowledge systems interoperable but in addition to the technical challenge there are legal and ethical issues involved. These relate to ‘ownership’ or custodianship of the knowledge; obtaining appropriate consent to gather, use and incorporate this knowledge; being sensitive to potentially different norms regarding access to and sharing of some types of knowledge; and appropriate acknowledgement for data contributors. In some cases, respectful incorporation of Traditional Knowledge may challenge standard conceptions regarding the sharing of data, including through open data licensing. These issues have not been fully addressed in the existing literature on legal interoperability which does not adequately deal with Traditional Knowledge. In this paper we identify legal and ethical norms regarding the use of Traditional Knowledge and explore their application in the particular context of polar data. Drawing upon our earlier work on cybercartography and Traditional Knowledge we identify the elements required in the development of a framework for the inclusion of Traditional Knowledge within data infrastructures.
The University of Ottawa’s Centre for Law, Technology and Society (CLTS), Samuelson-Glushko Canadian Internet Policy & Public Interest Clinic (CIPPIC), and Carleton University’s Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre (GCRC) propose a licensing scheme available to traditional knowledge holders. The scheme aims to assist traditional knowledge holders communicate their expectations for appropriate use of their knowledge to all end users.
How good are current models at integrating knowledge from diverse sources through time? Catching Ripples in the Water: A Social-Ecological Regime Shifts (SERS) Approach to Understand Rapid Changes in Coastal Watersheds and Crafting Governance Arrangements; Waterloo, ON.
How good is our research paradigm at describing and understanding long-term social-ecological-cultural change? Catching Ripples in the Water: A Social-Ecological Regime Shifts (SERS) Approach to Understand Rapid Changes in Coastal Watersheds and Crafting Governance Arrangements; Waterloo, ON.
Hayes, Amos; Taylor, Fraser; Anonby E; Murasugi K.
Mapping language with the Nunaliit Atlas framework: the languages of Iran and the Inuit language in Canada. International Cartographic Congress; Washington, D.C.
Arctic spatial data infrastructure. Round Table on Enhancing International Arctic Cooperation, American Centre; Moscow, Russia.
Creating a cybercartographic atlas of the Bering Strait. Pan-Arctic Options; Moscow, Russia.
Mapping the Bering Sea. Belmont Forum Pan-Arctic Options Annual Meeting; Moscow, Russia.
Rapid technological change and the future of cybercartography. Canadian Cartographic Conference; Ottawa, ON.
Some issues in mapping traditional knowledge. International Cartographic Congress; Washington, D.C.
Taylor, Fraser; Hayes, Amos; Oikle R.
Critical media and big data. Research Data Management & Portage Network; Ottawa, ON.
Arctic Ocean sovereignty… and the sustainable development goals. Coastal Futures; Resilience through Collaboration Conference, Coastal Zone Canada Association; Toronto, ON.
Community mapping with nunaliit. Inuit Studies Conference; St. John’s, NL.
The Nunaliit Cybercartographic Atlas framework and its use by Inuit knowledge stewards. Inuit Studies Conference; St. John’s, NL.
Hayes, Amos; Taylor, Fraser; Arnold S; Nuyalia C; Young A.
Geographic information and coastal zone management: an example from Nunavut. Coastal Zone Conference; Toronto, ON.
Newell, Sarah; Doubleday, Nancy.
Applying current ethical frameworks when conducting research in the Arctic. ArcticNet ASM; Winnipeg, MB.
The ethics of conducting research in the Arctic. Spring Water Forum, Hamilton, ON; Pegasus Conference, Toronto, ON; and OceanCanada Conference, Vancouver, BC.
Pringle Kathryn; Doubleday, Nancy.
Community needed in protecting the oceans: re-examining land-water-ocean transfers. Pegasus Conference; Toronto, ON.
Scassa T; Taylor, Fraser; Hayes, Amos.
A legal framework for the collection and sharing traditional knowledge of Indigenous northern communities. 9th Polar Law Symposium: The Role of Law in Polar Governance; Akureyri and Reykjavik, Iceland.
Creating a cybercartographic atlas of the Bering Strait for pan-Arctic options. Belmont Forum. Paris; France.
Creating the cybercartographic atlas of the Arctic Ocean. Coastal Zone Canada Conference; Toronto, ON.
Taylor, Fraser; Teresa Scassa.
Cybercartography and traditional Inuit knowledge: some legal and ethical issues. National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen.
Arctic biodiversity and climate change. International Arctic Science Committee, Arctic Frost Workshop; St. Petersburg, Russia.
Contributing to “Coastal-grab.” Community Conservation Research Network; Tofino, BC.
Bridging water security, peace building and the geopolitics of transboundary water governance. International Studies Association; Atlanta, GA. (Panel organized with Dustin Garrick.)
If sustainability and peaceful co-existence are cross-scale problems, what implications and opportunities for Arctic regimes are implied? International Studies Association; Atlanta, GA.
Doubleday, Nancy, TK Vlasova and MJS Royer
Cold regions: monitoring, observing, understanding. International Geographical Union (IGU) Conference; Moscow, Russia. Part of Cold Region Environments session organized by presenters.
Community mapping using nunaliit. Community Mapping Symposium. Concordia University; Montreal, QC.
Developing atlases for community priorities. National Museum of Denmark; Copenhagen, Denmark.
Indigenous place names mapping using nunaliit. Geographical Names Board of Canada; Ottawa, ON.
Using nunaliit for diverse and distributed knowledge management. International Polar Data Forum II. University of Waterloo; Waterloo, ON.
Sarah Newell, Doubleday, Nancy, J. Brodeur, J. Kehoe and J. Counsell
The portal as a tool to enable community and university collaboration in research. Arctic Net: Vancouver, BC.
Cybercartography and traditional Inuit knowledge: some legal and ethical issues. National Museum of Denmark; Copenhagen, Denmark.
Data rescue and preservation. International Polar Data Forum II. University of Waterloo; Waterloo, ON.
Pan-Arctic options. Holistic integration for Arctic coastal-marine sustainability. Belmont Forum; Ottawa, ON.
The trans-Atlantic platform for the social sciences and humanities. National Museum of Denmark; Copenhagen, Denmark.
Taylor, Fraser and Teresa Scassa
Legal and ethical norms for incorporating traditional knowledge in polar data infrastructures. International Polar Data Forum II. University of Waterloo; Waterloo, ON.